Mitochondria are the energy producers in the cell. They produce it through the process known as cellular respiration and it is where Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is made, a molecule that constitutes the main source of energy usable by the cell to perform its functions.
Mitochondria synthesize ATP from glucose, fatty acids and amino acids. They do not have a defined structure since they are easily deformed but are normally elongated. Apart from energy production, mitochondria are related to the processes of cell communication, cell differentiation and Apoptosis or programmed cell death, but they also have control over the cell cycle and cell growth. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely. For example, erythrocytes, or red blood cells, do not contain mitochondria, but liver cells have about 2,000. Mitochondria have several parts:
- Outer mitochondrial membrane.
- Inner mitochondrial membrane.
- Intermembranous space.
- Golgi apparatus
It is the organelle that receives proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum and where the compilation of all the substances that the cell expels to the lysosomes or through the plasma membrane takes place. The Golgi apparatus completes the manufacture of some proteins and packages others by covering them with a membrane before being sent to their destination, “labeling” these proteins to send them where they belong both inside and outside the cell. Its main functions are: -Protein modification. -Cellular secretion. -Plasma membrane production. -Formation of lysosomes. As part of traffic management, the Golgi apparatus is essential in the secretion of substances that are expelled from the cell. It has three parts:
- cis-Golgi region.
- Region medial.
- Trans-Golgi Region.
They are spherical vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that facilitate the assimilation of substances by making them smaller. Additionally, they are responsible for eliminating waste by digestion of unwanted substances through the cytoplasm. Lysosomes protect the cell from foreign bodies such as viruses and bacteria and even digest parts of the cell that are discarded as organelles that are replaced. These organelles contain more than 60 different enzymes that come from the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and serve to perform their functions of breaking down and digesting biomolecules.