7 Characteristics of microorganisms

The characteristics of microorganisms are as follows:

  1. Small Size: Microorganisms, also known as microbes, are tiny organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. They can only be observed under a microscope. Examples of microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.
  2. Diverse and Abundant: Microorganisms are incredibly diverse and can be found in virtually every environment on Earth, from deep oceans to soil to the human body. They are abundant and play essential roles in various ecosystems and biochemical processes.
  3. Single-Celled or Simple Structure: Most microorganisms are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell. However, some microorganisms, such as fungi and algae, can be multicellular. Microbes often have simpler structures compared to complex organisms, with basic organelles and cellular components.
  4. Reproductive Efficiency: Microorganisms have high reproductive rates, allowing them to multiply rapidly. Bacteria, for example, can reproduce through binary fission, where one parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This enables microorganisms to adapt quickly to changing environments.
  5. Metabolic Diversity: Microorganisms exhibit a wide range of metabolic capabilities. They can obtain energy from various sources, including sunlight (photosynthesis), organic matter (heterotrophy), or inorganic compounds (chemosynthesis). This metabolic diversity allows microorganisms to occupy diverse ecological niches.
  6. Importance in Biogeochemical Cycles: Microorganisms play vital roles in nutrient cycling and biogeochemical processes. For example, certain bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form for plants (nitrogen fixation), while others decompose organic matter and recycle nutrients back into the ecosystem.
  7. Pathogenic Potential: While many microorganisms are harmless or even beneficial, some can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Pathogenic microorganisms, such as certain bacteria and viruses, can cause infections and pose significant health risks.

Understanding the characteristics of microorganisms is crucial in fields such as microbiology, medical research, environmental science, and biotechnology. It helps us appreciate their ecological importance, their role in human health and disease, and their potential applications in various industries.

What is micro-organism?

A micro-organism or microbe is an organism which is microscopic, which means so small that people cannot see them with the naked eye. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology.

Micro-organisms include bacteria, fungi, archaea, protists and viruses, and are among the earliest known life forms. The first of these four types of micro-organisms may either be free-living or parasitic. Viruses can only be parasitic, since they always reproduce inside other living things.

Most micro-organisms are unicellular organisms with only one cell, but there are unicellular protists that are visible to the human eye, and some multicellular species are microscopic.

Micro-organisms live almost everywhere on earth where there is liquid water, including hot springs on the ocean floor and deep inside rocks within the earth’s crust. Such habitats are lived in by extremophiles.

Micro-organisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems, because they act as decomposers. Because some micro-organisms can also take nitrogen out of the air, they are an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Pathogenic, or harmful, microbes can invade other organisms and cause disease.

Free-living micro-organisms

Free-living microbes get their energy in many different ways. Some use photosynthesis, like plants do. Some break down natural chemicals in their environment. Others feed on things that were once living, such as fallen leaves and dead animals, causing them to breakdown or decay. Some fungi and bacteria cause food to decay. Moldy bread or fruit, sour milk, and rotten meat are examples of decayed food. In nature, decayed materials mix with soil, providing essential nutrients for plants to use. Without this process, the nutrients in the soil would run out. These types of organisms are called decomposers. They are the natural recyclers of living things on our planet.

Microbes also help us make some of our foods, such as bread, cheese, yogurt, beer, and wine. They feed on the sugar in grain, fruit, or milk, giving these foods a special texture and taste.

Parasitic microbes

Some microbes, often called germs, cause illness or disease. They are parasites which live by invading living things. Chickenpox, mumps, and measles are all caused by viruses. Some bacteria are also germs. They cause many infectious diseases including tuberculosis and tetanus. Certain bacteria cause tooth decay. It is possible to protect humans against some harmful microbes by storing and preparing food properly, cleaning the teeth, washing hands, and by avoiding close contact with ill people.


All animals seem to have bacteria and protozoa living in or on them without doing much harm. Sometimes, as with herbivores, the microorganisms are vital to the digestion of food. The human gut has more organisms living inside it than there are cells in the human body.[5]

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