This energy source is based on the transfer of heat from the Earth’s core to the surface, where it can be captured and used.
Characteristics of Geothermal Energy
- Source Inexhaustible: Geothermal energy comes from inexhaustible natural sources, as Earth’s heat is virtually unlimited.
- Low CO2 emissions: It is a clean energy source that produces low carbon dioxide emissions compared to fossil fuels.
- Continuous Availability: Unlike some intermittent renewable energy sources, geothermal energy is available on a constant basis, making it reliable.
- Versatility: Can be used to generate electricity and heating, as well as for industrial, agricultural and thermal applications.
- Energy Efficiency: Geothermal plants have a high efficiency in converting heat into electricity.
- Reduction of the Fossil Fuel Dependency: Contributes to the decrease in dependence on fossil fuels and, therefore, energy security.
- Local Environmental Impact: Geothermal plants can have a local environmental impact, but it is lower compared to oil and gas extraction.
- Important Geographical Location: It is found in specific geographical areas, such as volcanic regions, where Earth heat is more accessible.
- Constant Operating Costs: Once the infrastructure is built, operating costs tend to be stable, which facilitates long-term planning.
- Waste reduction: It does not produce ash or radioactive waste, unlike some energy sources.
Types of Geothermal Energy
- Geothermal Energy of High Temperature: It is obtained from thermal sources and geysers with temperatures above 150oC, used mainly for electricity generation.
- Low and medium-temperature Gethological Energy: Take advantage of the heat of the earth at lower temperatures, used for heating and cooling in buildings.
- Ultra Low Temperature Getrestmic Energy: Uses the constant floor temperature for low-consumption geothermal heating and cooling systems.
Advantages of Geothermal Energy
- Environmental Sustainability: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.
- Inexhaustible energy: It doesn’t depend on finite resources and is reliable in the long term.
- Low Operating Costs: Geothermal plants have low operating costs once established.
- Energy Independence: Reduces dependence on fossil fuels and volatile oil and gas prices.
- Benefits for Local Communities: It can generate employment and economic development in areas close to geothermal deposits.
Geothermal deposits are areas where Earth’s heat is accessible and can be exploited. They are found in regions with volcanic activity, geological faults or active tectonic plates.
Notable examples include the Pacific Ring of Fire, Iceland and parts of the United States.
Importance of Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy plays a key role in the transition to cleaner and more sustainable energy sources.
It contributes to reducing carbon emissions, promotes energy independence and provides a reliable source of electricity and heating.
In addition, encouraging investment in geothermal technology, economic growth and job creation are encouraged in areas close to geothermal deposits.
In a world concerned about climate change and resource conservation, geothermal energy becomes an essential option for a greener and more sustainable future.